Fingerprints and Passwords: A Guide for Non-Security Experts

iphoneToday Apple announced that the iPhone 5S will have a fingerprint scanner. Many of us in the security community are highly sceptical of this feature, while others saw this as a smart security move. Then of course there are the journalists who see fingerprints as the ultimate password killer. Clearly there is some disagreement here. I thought I’d lay this out for those of you who need to better understand the implications of using fingerprints vs or in addition to passwords.

Biometrics, like usernames and passwords, are a way to identify and authenticate yourself to a system. We all know that passwords can be weak and difficult to manage, which makes it tempting to call every new authentication product a password killer. But despite their flaws, passwords must always play some role in authentication.

The fact is that while passwords do have their flaws, they also have their strengths. The same is true with biometrics. You can’t just replace passwords with fingerprints and say you’ve solved the problem because you have introduced a few new problems.

To clarify this, below is a table that compares the characteristics of biometrics vs passwords, with check marks where one method has a clear advantage:

Passwords Biometrics
Difficult to remember Don’t have to remember 
Requires unique passwords for each system Can be used on every system 
Nothing else to carry around Nothing else to carry around
Take time to type Easy to swipe/sense 
Prone to typing errors Prone to sensor or algorithm errors
Immune to false positives  Susceptible to false positives
Easy to enroll  Some effort to enroll
Easy to change  Impossible to change
Can be shared among users 1  Cannot be shared 
Can be used without your knowledge Less likely to be used without your knowledge 
Cheap to implement  Requires hardware sensors
Work anywhere including browsers & mobile  Require separate implementation
Mature security practice  Still evolving
Non-proprietary  Proprietary
Susceptible to physical observation Susceptible to public observation
Susceptible to brute force attacks Resistant to brute force attacks 
Can be stored as hashes by untrusted third party  Third party must have access to raw data
Cannot personally identify you  Could identify you in the real world
Allow for multiple accounts  Cannot use to create multiple accounts
Can be forgotten; password dies with a person Susceptible to injuries, aging, and death
Susceptible to replay attacks Susceptible to replay attacks
Susceptible to weak implementations Susceptible to weak implementations
Not universally accessible to everyone Not universally accessible to everyone
Susceptible to poor user security practices Not susceptible to poor practices 
Lacks non-repudiation Moderate non-repudiation 
1 Can be both a strength and a weakness


What Does This Tell Us?

As you can see, biometrics clearly are not the best replacement for passwords, which is why so many security experts cringe when every biometrics company in their press releases claim themselves as the ultimate password killer. Biometrics do have some clear advantages over passwords, but they also have numerous disadvantages; they both can be weak and yet each can be strong, depending on the situation. Now the list above is not weighted–certainly some of the items are more important than others–but the point here is that you can’t simply compare passwords to biometrics and say that one is better than the other.

However, one thing you can say is that when you use passwords together with biometrics, you have something that is significantly stronger than either of the two alone. This is because you get the advantages of both techniques and only a few of the disadvantages. For example, we all know that you can’t change your fingerprint if compromised, but pair it with a password and you can change that password. Using these two together is referred to as two-factor authentication: something you know plus something you are.

It’s not clear, however, if the Apple implementation will allow for you to use both a fingerprint and password (or PIN) together.

Now specifically talking about the iPhone’s implementation of a fingerprint sensor, there are some interesting points to note. First, including it on the phone makes up for some of the usual biometric disadvantages such as enrollment, having special hardware sensors, and privacy issues due to only storing that data locally. Another interesting fact is that the phone itself is actually a third factor of authentication: something you possess. When combined with the other two factors it becomes an extremely reliable form of identification for use with other systems. A compromise would require being in physical possession of your phone, having your fingerprint, and knowing your PIN.

Ultimately, the security of the fingerprint scanner largely depends on the implementation, but even if it isn’t perfect, it is better than those millions of phones with no protection at all.

There is the issue of security that some have brought up: is this just a method for the NSA to build a master fingerprint database? Apple’s implementation encrypts and stores fingerprint locally using trusted hardware. Whether this is actually secure remains to be seen, but keep in mind that your fingerprints aren’t really that private: you literally leave them on everything you touch.



6 New Password Rules

Considering the increasing attention passwords have been getting lately, I thought it was about time we sit down and establish some new rules to define exactly what is a password. After all, so much of our personal lives, finances, and identities rely on these obscure jumbling of letters, numbers, and punctuation.

1. Password, 1234, letmein, and anything else that you see on this common passwords cloud are not passwords.

Recently I took my son over to a friend’s house and when we got there we found he lived in a gated community that required a PIN to enter. My son was about to call his friend when I told him, “I got this.” I reached over and entered 1234 and the gate promptly swung open. Yeah my son was very impressed at my hacker skills, but the fact is that 1234, 12345, or even 12345678 are not strong enough to be considered passwords.


2. If you google your password and get more than 10,000 results, it is not a password.

It’s really simple, if your password shows up that many times in Google, your password is not a password it is a dictionary or common wordlist word.

3. If your password is 8 characters or less, it is not a password.

An 8-character password just isn’t strong enough these days to be considered a password. Most 8-character passwords consist of a dictionary word or name with a couple numbers added to the end. These are incredibly easy to crack and will not stand up to a brute force attack no matter what type of encryption used. If your password is 8 characters long, you might have a PIN, but it certainly is not a password, which is probably why banks seem to love limiting password length to 8 characters. I recently explained just how much of a difference there is between an 8-character password and a 10-character password, but maybe this would illustrate it better:

8 Character Password

This is the equivalent of an 8-character password

6 Character Password

This is the equivalent of a 6-character password











4. If you use it on multiple sites, it is no longer a password.

Considering the huge number of passwords hacked and dumped on the internet every single day, I would hope that most of us have learned that you simply cannot reuse the same passwords on multiple sites. You are better off never even considering using the same passwords everywhere because it is easy to fall into that habit.

Just to illustrate why this is such a big deal, there are people such as me who collect passwords. Here is a list of all the passwords I have for the username bonehead. Now if I know that there is a user named bonehead on a web site, I can try all of these passwords and chances are surprisingly good that one of these passwords is correct. Why is this such an effective technique? Because everyone reuses their passwords on multiple sites.

5. If a password is older than 3 years, it has expired and is no longer a password

I know some of you get really attached to your passwords, but it is time to start using a password manager and changing those very old Hotmail and PayPal passwords.  You wouldn’t eat 3-year old food, so don’t use a 3-year-old password.

6. If you tell someone your password, it is no longer a password

Certainly sometimes it is necessary to share an account, but there is no excuse for telling someone your personal passwords, and this includes writing them down and sticking them on your monitor. If you have trouble doing this, one trick is to set your password as some phrase that reveals some highly personal or embarrassing fact you would never tell anyone–problem solved!

So come on people, we really can make passwords that really are passwords. Passwords don’t need to be totally random and they don’t always have to have numbers, capitals, and punctuation, but they do need to be long, unique, and secret!





Analyzing the XKCD Passphrase Comic

I rarely see any discussion of password strength without seeing th XKCD comic below brought up to illustrate that a long pass phrase is better than a shorter random jumble of characters. Since this is something I have been arguing for fifteen years, this is something I do agree with, although adding a little more randomness and complexity is still necessary.

XKCD: Password Strength

(XKCD: Password Strength - Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 License.)

In 2006 I wrote Pafwert, a random but smart password generator, to illustrate this concept. Pass phrases are easier to remember, easier to type (we type in whole words), and are generally much stronger passwords. My philosophy has always been that length is more important than any other factor for password strength.

But not everyone agrees. Most often the argument against the pass phrase technique is that since the password is made up of 4 whole words, basically this isn’t that much different than a 4-character password, you just need to adjust the brute-force tools to work with whole words instead. While this is somewhat true, it doesn’t take much to turn this technique into something extremely effective.

How Strong are Pass Phrases?

To determine password strength, we generally determine how many passwords have similar characteristics. In other words, if finding a password is like finding needle in a haystack, the critical question is how big is that haystack?

To do the math on this, we need to determine how large a set of words the average English-speaking user would likely choose from. Some English language dictionaries include well over 150,000 words but most linguists agree that the average-intelligence English speaker has a vocabulary of somewhere between 7,000 and 15,000 words.

What is misleading about these numbers is that dictionary words are only a small part of our vocabulary. Consider these other non-dictionary words:

  1. Proper nouns such as McDonalds, Lady Gaga, Instagram, JQuery, and possibly hundreds of thousands of other words that are part of our daily vocabulary.
  2. Domain names like,, and thousands of others.
  3. Popular slang and social jargon (see your average Facebook post).
  4. Alternate spellings, leetspeek, etc.
  5. Acronyms such as WWW, CISPA, SSN, WWII, and SMS.
  6. Words from other languages
  7. Programming language elements and function names
  8. And don’t forget written-out numbers, you will never find “1,276,209″ in a dictionary and there are millions of those.

Forget dictionary words, our vocabularies are HUGE.

So how many actual words do we know? It is impossible to say but a very conservative estimate would be a minimum of about 25,000 words. Realistically this number is much higher than this but we will use 25,000 here just for illustration.

Now if we are picking 4 random words from a set of 25,000 words the number of possible combinations is 25,0004 or  390,625,000,000,000,000 (noted as #1 on the table below) which is about the strength of a 9-10 character alphanumeric password (see this chart). But passwords are case-sensitive and we often capitalize one of the words so realistically we are talking about 50,000 words or 50,0004 or  6,250,000,000,000,000,000 possible combinations (noted by #2 on the table below) which is about as strong as a 10-11 character alphanumeric password.

What’s interesting to note is that even a 3-word phrase results in 125,000,000,000,000 possibilities so even that would be roughly equivalent to a 7-8 character alphanumeric password which is the most commonly-seen password.


Making Them Even Stronger

Now most people have already developed techniques to make passwords stronger by adding some numbers or otherwise mutating that word so that it would not appear in a dictionary. That is why we often see passwords like dr@gon or freddy2000. Now these are very weak passwords by themselves but if you use this same technique in a pass phrase you can make them much stronger.

Remember, we are dealing with numbers that grow exponentially so a technique that is mediocre with a short password is incredibly effective with a long password.

Now consider the following pass phrase:  Picking at 200 p1ckles

Or this one:  I’m alway sthe first

Or this one:  How bout the 0xFC?

It’s a simple technique and a minor change but by doing this we have greatly expanded our 50,000 words. Many password cracking tools are very good at generating word permutations and can very quickly create and try hundreds of variants of a single dictionary word. But when you multiply that times 4 words, the numbers grow very fast.

Say, for example that for each of our original 25,000 words there are approximately 100 different mutations. That means we now potentially have a vocabulary of 2,500,000 words. And 2,500,000^4 equals 39,062,500,000,000,000,000,000,000 possible combinations of 4-word phrases (shown as #3 on the table above) which is stronger than a 14-character alphanumeric password.

So yeah, the XKCD recommendation is valid. And all you have to do is add a few simple mutations to make that method incredibly stronger.

My Password is

Password security has always been a hot issue but events in the last few years have made it an even more pressing issue to a greater number of people. When I hear receptionists in a doctor’s office sharing strategies for creating secure passwords I know this is now beyond the realm of network administrators and security professionals.

But one thing I have noticed is that many people don’t truly understand why one password can be so much stronger than another so I thought I would walk through the process of cracking a password. In this case, I decided to use as an example the very password that (until I wrote this) I use for the admin account on this blog.

So like I said in the title, my password is

That isn’t the best password I have come up with but it is still fairly strong. It is 15 characters long, contains a number, letters, and some periods. It took me just a couple logins to actually memorize that password. The word components are fast to type because we are trained to type in whole words. And there are four parts, each one ending with a period. The repetition of the period helps the memory process.

Chances are that no one would be able to go to my admin page (which itself is protected by a different password) and just guess that, no matter how much they knew about me and no matter how many of my other passwords they knew because I have never used that password anywhere else. As of writing this article, I can do a Google search for “” and there will be no results.

But the real risk isn’t someone being able to keep trying to guess my password via the admin page, the real risk is someone finding a new 0-day exploit that allows them to dump the users table in my database and get the hash of my password (which happens to be $P$9YCJ/QwbFcgbo7OtfWGYYE8sVJBxtF/). If someone can get your hash, they can now try millions of password combinations without you ever knowing it.

Cracking a password hash is a lot like trying keys in a lock. A hash is a string of characters derived from your password that is calculated in such a way that it is nearly impossible to work backwards to discover the original password so it is relatively safe to store. When you log in to a system, it will run the password you enter through this same complex formula and the result should be the same.

So when I first created my password on this blog I entered WordPress ran it through these formulas and came up with the hash $P$9YCJ/QwbFcgbo7OtfWGYYE8sVJBxtF/ which it saved it in the database. The next time I log in, I enter my password, WordPress runs the same formula on that password and it comes up with $P$9YCJ/QwbFcgbo7OtfWGYYE8sVJBxtF/ which matches the hash it has stored so it knows that I am using the correct password even though WordPress never stored my actual password. Now what is special about these formulas is that it is extremely rare that any two passwords will create the exact same hash (a concept known as collision).

So if someone is able to obtain my hash, they can’t directly get my password from that, but they can try millions or even billions of different passwords and run each one through the formula until they find one that produces that exact same hash. It is a lot like having a lock, you can’t easily create a key from it but you can try a bunch of keys until you find the one that works.

Now when it comes to passwords there are actually hundreds of trillions of possible passwords someone might choose. Even with a cluster of powerful computers it could take decades to try every possible password. Fortunately for hackers, most people aren’t that clever with their passwords. There are a number of strategies they use that can drastically reduce the number of passwords you need to test to crack a password. Below is that strategy

1. Hash Lookup

First, an attacker will check to see if someone else has cracked the password before, using either a local database or an online database such as or or one of the hundreds of other similar sites. In the past few years there have been many large sites that have been hacked and their passwords leaked. If you password was ever one of these, chances are it will appear in one of these databases. Likewise, if you select a common password that others may also be using, it also might be on this list.

In the case of WordPress, the hashes are created using PHPASS but for the sake of this example, let’s just assume they use MD5 hashes like many other systems use. The MD5 hash for my password is 7914881ba9b78fa307db6ef0db675e29. You can search any online databases for my hash and you will not find it listed anywhere (at least at the time of writing). If your password is one that you have never used before and others likely have not used, you should be safe (try googling one of your passwords, you may be surprised how many results you get).

If your password hash does not appear in one of these databases, there are also rainbow tables which are massive databases of precomputed hashes consisting of every possible password up to 8-10 characters in length, depending on the algorithm. If your password is less than eight characters long, your password surely will be cracked at this stage. However, you will not find 7914881ba9b78fa307db6ef0db675e29 in any of those databases so I am safe so far.

The lesson here is to never use a password less than ten characters long. Never use the same password on multiple systems. Don’t try to be clever with your password, that never works (NCC-1701 is a very common password).

2. The Word List

Since most passwords consist of dictionary words or something similar, checking every word in a dictionary or a specialized wordlist is a quick way to find a weak password. Most hackers will use lists of the most common passwords such as this because chances are very high that someone will be using one of those passwords. It normally doesn’t take more than a minute to go through even a gigantic list of words.

In my case, even a Google search for my password turns up nothing so even if you had the massive list of words that Google has indexed you still wouldn’t be able to crack my password.

Considering this, you can see why so many systems simply probihit any password that is a dictionary word.

3. Rules and Patterns

If a dictionary or wordlist check fails, the next step is to try some of the common (albeit innefective) tricks people use to make a password more complex. If you asked me what I thought was the most common password pattern I would say a proper noun (such as a name) followed by 2-3 numbers. So it would be smart for a hacker to take each word in a wordlist and add ever possible number from 1 through 999. If that doesn’t work, you could try reversing each word or doing simple substitutions like using the number 3 instead of the letter e. It really does not take much effort for a cracking program to try hundreds of different patterns.

For example, a dictionary word may be “password” so a rules-based attack my try PASSWORD, dRowssap, P@SSW0RD, p@ssW0rd, dr0Wss@p, passwordpassword, @ssW0rdp, dp@ssW0r, p@9sW0rd, 1p@ssW0rd, p@$$W0rd, ppp@ssW0rd, 1p@ssW0rd, and thousands of other variants of the word. Depending on the number of rules and the size of the wordlist, this step may take only five to ten minutes and will crack a great number of passwords.

If an attacker has sufficient processing power, another effective strategy is to try two dictionary words together with various delimiters between them (such as dashes or periods). If you had a wordlist of 100,000 words and tried every combination of two words that means you would have ten billion possible combinations. Trying different delimiters between the words would make it a little bit harder but not much.

You probably wouldn’t want to try three-word combinations because that would take you up to a quadillion (1,000,000,000,000,000) possible combinations which would not be an effective strategy. In the case of my password there is a number and three other words that would likely appear in a dictionary but testing for four-word combinations would mean there are 100 quintillion (100,000,000,000,000,000,000) possible passwords, so the odds are my password would still be pretty safe.

The lesson here is that a strong password is not a matter of being clever, it is a matter of beating the numbers. Passwords should always contain three or more words or other sequences.

4. Brute Force

If a password hash doesn’t show up in a database or hasn’t been cracked before, does not show up in a list of common passwords or dictionary words (even after trying hundreds of common variants), the only method left is to simply brute-force the password. This means trying every possible combination of letters until you find the password. It would be like trying to crack a simple bicycle lock, you would start with 000 and try 001, 002, 003, and so on until you got to 999.

In the case of passwords you would need to try every combination of lowercase letters, uppercase letters, numbers, and punctuation symbols. In other words, imagine a bicycle lock where each dial contains abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCEDFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789`~!@#$%^&*()_-+={[}]|:;"'.?/ and there are eight or more dials. This is why so many systems require that you use a variety of characters because using different types of characters is like making each dial larger. And making your password longer is like adding more dials.



Now brute-force attacks are much smarter nowadays using techniques such as mask-based attacks. These types of attacks basically use knowledge about passwords to make the brute-force process much smarter. For example, if you look at this chart you will see that uppercase letters are very likely to show up in position 1 but are extremely rare after position 8. Knowing this, it would be more effective to not even bother looking for uppercase letters after the first few characters. Now if you look at the distribution of all character sets in this graph you can see that much can be done to optimize the brute-force process. Nevertheless, these rules become less and less effective the longer and more complex your password gets.

The big secret here is if you can force a hacker to have to use a brute-force attack and you have a password that is at least 15 characters long, chances are that you have won. Eventually computing power will catch up so that even 15 characters might be enough but the good thing is that these numbers grow exponentially so a 16-character password is almost 100 times stronger than a 15-character password and a 17-character is more than 9,000 times stronger!

So What Makes a Password Strong?

Your password must be something very unique and one that you have never used before. In fact it should be so unique that if you did a Google search for it, there would never be any results. You can’t just take a word and dress it up a bit, you need 3-4 words or other sequences to make a password strong. And finally it has to be long. It helps to throw in some numbers and pumctuation but most importantly it has to be long.

The Worst Password Tips


Because I have always been so fascinated with passwords, I always like to hear different tips people have for creating strong passwords. However, I have to admit that most of the tips I run across are actually kind of lame and really are not very secure. Unfortunately, some of these tips are quite popular and get passed around way too much. In fact, I rarely see any advice besides these I have listed. Continue reading “The Worst Password Tips” »

Worst Password Policy Ever?

I have seen many silly and overly complex password policies over the years, but I think that the TSA’s TWIC password policy has to be the worst I have ever seen. Their password policy is as follows:

  1. Minimum password length is eight characters.
  2. Passwords must contain at least one of each of the following: one alphabetic uppercase, one alphabetic lowercase, one numeric, and one special character.
  3. Passwords shall not contain any two identical consecutive characters (example: 22apples, 14588904).
  4. Passwords may contain no more than two identical consecutive characters in any position from the previous password.
  5. Passwords shall not contain any dictionary word.
  6. Passwords shall not contain any proper noun or the name of any person, pet, child, or fictional character.
  7. Passwords shall not contain any employee serial number, Social Security number, birth date, phone number, or any information that could be readily guessed about the creator of the password.
  8. Passwords shall not contain any simple pattern of letters or numbers, such as “qwerty” or “xyz123″.
  9. Passwords shall not be any word, noun, or name spelled backwards or appended with a single digit or with a two-digit “year” string, such as 98xyz123.
  10. Pass phrases, if used in addition to or instead of passwords, should follow these same guidelines.
  11. Passwords shall not be the same as the User ID.
  12. Password length will be selected to provide a level of protection commensurate to the value or sensitivity of the resources or data it protects, but not less than eight characters.

Complex password policies are frustrating and confusing to users and can even lead to habits that subvert the security of the system they are trying to protect with the passwords. But this policy just takes it to a whole new level.

All I can really do is address it one point at a time:

1. Minimum password length is eight characters.

My first thought here is that if you are going to have such an extreme password policy, you could at least set the minimum password length to ten or even twelve characters. The password length is crucial to password security and eight characters just isn’t long enough anymore. Besides, having a longer minimum length requirement alone would eliminate the need for most of those other policies.

2. Passwords must contain at least one of each of the following: one alphabetic uppercase, one alphabetic lowercase, one numeric, and one special character.

Usually I complain about password policies that require all four types of character sets, but in the context of all the other rules below, this one doesn’t seem so bad anymore.

3. Passwords shall not contain any two identical consecutive characters (example: 22apples, 14588904).

I see no justification for how this rule makes someone’s password more secure. Consecutive characters certainly do not make a password more guessable or more crackable and this policy seriously makes me wonder if the writer’s of this policy even understand password security at all. In fact, you could even argue that in the case of a brute force attack that two consecutive characters would take longer than other character combinations. For example, if you are trying to crack the password 14588904 via a brute force attack that starts at 00000000 and ends at 99999999, incrementing by one character each time, then when it gets to 14580000 it still has a ways to go before it gets to the actual password. In this particular case, the password 14581234 would be cracked first even thought it doesn’t have consecutive characters. Overall, the average time for any set of passwords would not be affected at all by this policy and it really seems like a policy created just for the sake of having a policy.

4. Passwords may contain no more than two identical consecutive characters in any position from the previous password.

I’m not even completely sure what this means, but I am guessing that if your previous password was 8qTaYbg$aMVVruEg and you wanted to set your new password to &2Ta3xfWNG=Arn9e, it would be rejected as not being secure enough because it has two of the same characters in the same places as the last password. Now I don’t know if any of their admins have ever tried cracking someone’s password, but you definitely don’t start with the previous password (if you even know that) and start matching character by position.

5. Passwords shall not contain any dictionary word.
6. Passwords shall not contain any proper noun or the name of any person, pet, child, or fictional character.
7. Passwords shall not contain any employee serial number, Social Security number, birth date, phone number, or any information that could be readily guessed about the creator of the password.
8. Passwords shall not contain any simple pattern of letters or numbers, such as “qwerty” or “xyz123″.

These policies started with a good intention and took it one step too far. Apparently their logic is that if your password is something that would show up on a password cracker’s wordlist it is bad, therefore if if your password even contains a dictionary word, then it must also be bad. So if I chose a password like $$Superman&#xyz123, which is a very strong password, it would be rejected by the system as not being secure. Again, I’m not really sure these people understand password security.

9. Passwords shall not be any word, noun, or name spelled backwards or appended with a single digit or with a two-digit “year” string, such as 98xyz123.

This one I somewhat agree with. It is still a little extreme but probably fair. Still, this could be eliminated with a minimum 12-character policy.

10. Pass phrases, if used in addition to or instead of passwords, should follow these same guidelines.

Why did this even need to be said on an already cluttered and confusing list? I think that anyone would assume that the requirements of a pass phrase would be the same as those for a password. I’m starting to think that whoever wrote this was actually trying to make this list long hoping it would make them look smart or something.

11. Passwords shall not be the same as the User ID.

This is the only policy that actually needed to be there, and is something most users have come to expect in a policy. However, this is yet another policy that could likely be elmiminated by having a minimum length requirement.

12. Password length will be selected to provide a level of protection commensurate to the value or sensitivity of the resources or data it protects, but not less than eight characters.

Again, something that totally goes without saying and kind of sounds like something taken from a higher-level policy document. The list of policies is already intimidating enough to users that you really don’t need to be stating the obvious. Besides, if you have to say something like this, why not just make all passwords a minimum of 12 characters or more.


My Password Policy

So what would I use as the ultimate password policy? If I was ever in the position to set an organization’s policy, and it required a much higher than normal security, it would be this:

  1. Minimum password length is 15 characters but can contain anything you want including spaces.
  2. Your new password shouldn’t look too much like your last one.
  3. Don’t reuse this same password anywhere else.

Then, I would provide a short list of example passwords to spark their creativity such as this:

  • whitefish44.JPG
  • C:\program files\green
  • 1-800-orange piano

I know that many administrators would have a very hard time with my policy and some people will ask what if a user sets their password as a string of 15 a’s? After all, this goes against what most administrators are taught in school. My answer to that is that the password aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa has not appeared on any wordlist I have ever seen, so far is not in any rainbow tables, would be a strange thing for someone to guess, and would take forever to crack via a brute force attack so I say it’s actually a pretty good password.








These CAPTCHAs are just not working out

Filling out a web form without also having to pass a CAPTCHA test nowadays is pretty rare. CAPTCHAs weren’t really that annoying to me when they were more of a rare occurrence but I have been finding myself more and more bothered with them lately, especially because my success rate in entering the correct letters seems to be around 75%. There are some CAPTCHAs I have encountered lately that take me several tries to get right. And when I get annoyed at some security measure my first thought is to try to break it. Continue reading “These CAPTCHAs are just not working out” »

How to Guess an Admin’s Password Without Them Knowing You Are Trying

This should be pretty obvious, but a lot of people don’t seem to be aware of this old trick. Normally, if you try to guess another user’s password and it fails, the attempt will show up in the event viewer of the domain controller. However, there is a way you can try to guess an account’s password without the attempts ever being logged.

It’s actually pretty simple: just unplug your network cable. Continue reading “How to Guess an Admin’s Password Without Them Knowing You Are Trying” »

Be Smarter with Account Names

One thing that bothers me about many web sites out there is how I get to (or don’t get to) choose my account name. Sure, many web sites let you have any account name you want, but some web sites just want to use your e-mail address. While this is very convenient for low security sites that you rarely visit, some times it just isn’t appropriate. What do you do, for example, when your e-mail address changes? Continue reading “Be Smarter with Account Names” »

Long passwords are strong passwords

I noticed that Schneier wrote a bit on choosing passwords and gets into some detail on how to secure a password based on some of the techniques used to crack passwords.

His specific advice is:

“…if you want your password to be hard to guess, you should choose something not on any of the root or appendage lists. You should mix upper and lowercase in the middle of your root. You should add numbers and symbols in the middle of your root, not as common substitutions. Or drop your appendage in the middle of your root. Or use two roots with an appendage in the middle.”

While I certainly do agree with the validity of this advice, if you are an administrator, I wouldn’t recommend telling users to “drop their appendages in the middle of their roots.” Here’s some more practical advice: tell them to choose long passwords. Continue reading “Long passwords are strong passwords” »